Mexico has witnessed a significant reduction in its poverty rate, dropping from 49.9% in 2018 to 43.5% in 2022, as reported by Coneval, the country’s poverty analysis agency. This marked improvement reflects a positive change in the key measure of poverty over the span of four years, translating to 5.7 million fewer people living below the minimum income required for essentials like food and clothing.
The driving factors behind this impressive reduction remain unclear. President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who assumed office in December 2018, has notably doubled the minimum wage since then. This increase, combined with the strengthening of the Mexican peso against the dollar, has contributed to improved living conditions for many.
However, remittances have played an equally vital role. These monetary transfers from Mexicans working abroad have nearly doubled from approximately $33.5 billion in 2018 to an estimated annual rate of $60 billion in 2023. Experts highlight that these remittances often reach the most economically vulnerable families in Mexico, offering essential support for their daily needs.
While the overall trend is promising, not all aspects are positive. The report also highlights a rise in extreme poverty, characterized by insufficient income to afford basic sustenance. This segment increased slightly from 7% in 2018 to 7.1% in 2022, resulting in a rise from 8.7 million people in extreme poverty in 2018 to 9.1 million in 2022 due to population growth.
President López Obrador’s initiatives, such as supplementary pension payments for the elderly and youth scholarship programs, have brought certain relief. However, concerns persist about the effectiveness of these programs for the most marginalized citizens, as they are not means-tested.
An unexpected development has been the rise in healthcare-related financial concerns. The percentage of the population reporting such issues increased from 16.2% in 2018 to 39.1% in 2022. Experts attribute this surge to the restructuring of the healthcare system and the pandemic’s impact. During the pandemic, private healthcare services were sought due to the overload of government-run hospitals.
Geographical disparities in poverty persist, with northern Mexico generally experiencing lower rates compared to the southern states, notably Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Puebla, and Tlaxcala, where poverty remains most acute.
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